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Taxation Ruling No. IT sets out the relevant legislative provisions and general criteria which apply in determining whether a foreign tax is a creditable tax under the general foreign tax credit system FTCS. That Ruling contains a non-exhaustive list of foreign taxes which are recognised as creditable taxes. Paragraph 7 of the Ruling foreshadows periodical updates of that list - in the form of future Rulings incorporating an updated consolidated list of creditable taxes - as a consequence of changes in other countries' taxes and as other foreign taxes are admitted as creditable taxes.

This Ruling represents the first such update. While the issue of this Ruling in that form will obviate the need for reference back to the list of creditable taxes contained in IT , the comments in the Preamble to that Ruling concerning the relevant statutory provisions and guidelines for creditable tax determinations remain pertinent. In particular, it is emphasised that taxpayers who seek credit for foreign taxes not identified in this Ruling or in the subsequent Rulings should supply the following details of those taxes in the relevant income tax returns:.

As noted earlier, tax credits are generally better for you than deductions because credits are subtracted directly from your tax bill.

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Deductions, in contrast, are subtracted from the income on which your tax bill is based. A dollar's worth of tax credit reduces your tax bill by a dollar. However, a dollar's worth of deduction lowers your income by the percentage amount of your marginal tax bracket. So, a dollar's worth of deduction is worth only 35 cents if you're in the 35 percent bracket; it's value drops to 25 cents if you're in the 25 percent bracket. In fact, the more you reduce your taxable income, the lower your bracket and the less valuable each additional deduction becomes.

This means that you should definitely be aware of potential credits and what is required to claim them. And, in cases where you have a choice between claiming a credit or a deduction for a particular expense, you're generally better off claiming the credit. As wonderful as tax credits can be, with tax law there's almost always a catch. In this case, the catch is that many tax credits are available only in certain, very limited situations.

Most federal income tax credits currently available to business owners are very narrowly targeted to encourage you to take certain actions that lawmakers have deemed desirable.

Examples include credits designed to motivate you to make your company more accessible to disabled individuals or to provide health insurance to your workers. Other credits apply only to certain industries, such as restaurants and bars, or energy producers.

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There are also a few credits designed to prevent double taxation, and a few designed to encourage certain types of investments that are considered socially beneficial. In addition, the forms and procedures used to calculate and claim business tax credits often are quite complicated. While we do provide an outline of the basic rules, so you can decide whether to pursue a credit, we recommend that you leave the technical details to your tax professional.

The federal income tax is a progressive system. Now, in tax talk, that doesn't mean forward-looking or innovative. It means that different levels of income are taxes at "progressively" higher rates. One goal of tax planning to lower your taxable income, so you are taxed in a lower tax bracket with lower tax rates. The federal income tax is designed to tax higher levels of income at higher tax rates. A "tax bracket" refers to the highest marginal tax rate that you pay on any part of your taxable income. This is the rate that will apply to each additional dollar that you earn, until you earn so much that you graduate to the next bracket.

If you operate your business as a sole proprietorship, an LLC that has not elected to be taxed as a corporation, a general partnership, or an S corporation, your business income "passes through" to your personal income tax form and is taxed at the individual tax rates. If you operate your business as a regular corporation, the corporation pays its own taxes at the corporate tax rates which may be lower than your individual rate and you are taxed only on income received from the corporation.

The dollar amounts for each bracket depends upon your filing status e. The bracket amounts are based on taxable income, not gross income. Taxable income is the amount left after you've subtracted every deduction and personal exemption to which you're entitled. You need to know your current tax bracket in order to make wise tax planning decisions, since many decisions will make sense for those in certain brackets, but not for those in others.

You can find the current tax brackets on the IRS website or in your personal income tax form instructions. Although you can't literally lower your tax rate the rates are established by Congress , there are certain actions you can take that will have a similar result. Although "do it now" is excellent advice in nearly every situation, when it comes to taxes there can be a benefit to carefully considering the timing of various transactions.

By choosing an appropriate method of tax accounting and by thinking ahead to accelerate or delay when you receive income or incur expenses, you can exert some degree of control over your taxable income in any given year. Careful planning can delay the timing of an event or transaction that gives rise to tax liability.

Delaying recognition of income can be valuable. Even you'll be in the same tax bracket in all relevant years, you will have the use of your money for a longer period of time. While this might only net you a few dollars in extra interest, it might also provide you with the liquidity to make additional investment in your business. Delaying when your liability for tax occurs is not the same as delaying payment of tax! You very seldom have the option of actually delaying payment of the income tax you owe. It's possible to obtain an extension to pay tax if you can demonstrate to the IRS's satisfaction that you could not pay on time without undue hardship.

However, this is not something that you'll want to do unless absolutely necessary, since even if you can get the extension you will owe interest on the unpaid taxes, beginning on the original due date. By taking actions that delay the time when particular income items must be reported on your return, you can shift liability on that income to a different tax year. In general, you will be better off if your can postpone the receipt of income until the next year and accelerate payment of expenses into the current tax year.

In this way you can delay your tax liability on the deferred income to the next tax year. Controlling the timing of income recognition and deductions is generally possible only if you use the cash method of accounting. Although delaying the receipt of income does mean that have to wait longer to receive payment, you will have the amount you save on taxes available for your use for over a year.

You should not use this strategy when you will be in a higher tax bracket in the coming year—either because your income will increase or because the tax rates will increase. You want to realize income in the year in which you will be in the lower tax bracket.

You should not accelerate deductions when doing so may mean that you would lose some of the value of the deduction. For example, if you are in the 33 percent bracket this year, but anticipate being in the Similarly, if you foresee that your business profits will rise substantially over the next few years, you need to balance claiming a large deduction in one year versus spreading that deduction over several years.

This applies most clearly in the case of electing to claim a large depreciation deduction in the first year the property is in service, but can apply to losses from sales of capital assets as well. Remember, only a few of these suggestions will work if you use the accrual method of accounting. Of course, you should check with a tax professional before taking action in order to ensure that you haven't overlooked critical factors. In most cases, you accelerate income or defer deductions by simply doing the opposite of the suggestions outlined earlier in this article.

For example, instead of delaying your billings, send out all of your bills early, and do everything that you can to collect them before year's end. If you plan to sell a capital asset, make sure to sell that asset in the current tax year. Delay the purchase of supplies until next year, if possible. Again, any strategies aimed at changing the tax year of income and deductions are much easier to implement if you use the cash method of accounting. Although strategies aimed at changing the year in which income and deductions are reflected on your tax return are usually more difficult to accomplish using the accrual method, this does not mean that they cannot be done.

Although you want to explore all avenues to reduce your taxes, you need to be aware that certain tax strategies are likely to fail. What's more, they will raise red flags to IRS examination staff. Taking advantage of the complexity of the tax laws to reduce your legal tax debt makes good sense. Getting tripped up in the complexity and having the IRS disregard your planning strategies does not.

And, deliberately disregarding the tax law to shield income is foolhardy. In addition to the obvious: "don't hide your income or exaggerate your deductions," there are there are three over-arching rules that you should heed to make sure your planning stands up to an IRS challenge. Choosing to use one form of transaction, rather than another, to minimize your tax liability will not in-and-of-itself invalidate a transaction for income tax purposes.

Doing the tax calculations and picking the method that results in the lowest overall tax liability for the family is a wise course of action.

Income tax in Australia

However, you can not avoid tax liability simply by the label that you give a transaction. The IRS is going to look at the real purpose—the substance—of the transaction and tax it according.


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For example, you can give your son a car, or you can sell your son your car. However, you can't sell your car and claim it was a gift. Business owners often run afoul of the "substance over form" rule when they attempt to disguise compensation as "dividends" or "return of capital. Mike Appleton, the manager and principal stockholder of a Plasti-Cast, Inc , a regular corporation, lands a lucrative contract to supply components to a multi-national corporation.

The IRS sees things differently. Sauce for the goose, isn't necessarily sauce for the gander. While the IRS can step in and reclassify a transaction based upon its substance, rather than its form, taxpayers often find that they have to live with the consequences of their initial choices. This means that if you choose a particular form for a transaction, you may have a difficult time trying to convince the IRS that the substance of the transaction differs from the form you chose.

The reasoning is that you freely chose how to set up the transaction, so it's only fair to require you to live with its tax consequences. The IRS sometimes uses what is known as the "step transaction" doctrine to argue that the substance of a particular transaction is different from its form. When it relies on this doctrine, the IRS will treat a multi-stage transaction as a single, unified transaction. It will not break up a single transaction into two or more steps for income tax purposes.

So, the intermediate steps in an integrated transaction will not be assigned separate tax consequences. A transfer of property from Able to Baker, followed by Baker's transfer of the same property to Charlie, may, if the transfers are interdependent, be treated for tax purposes as a transfer from Able to Charlie.

This is not to say that there aren't valid transactions that take place in a series of steps. Many sales and exchanges of property have multiple steps and, if the rules are followed, these are perfectly valid. It is to say that you can't impose an artificial step to change the impact of the transaction. The IRS pays close attention to transactions that involve taxpayers who have close business or family relationships.